Jews and Joes

Israelite and Noahic Haplogroup Hypotheses

Things to consider first:

The hypotheses below will be modified with time as the many points receive criticism from various fields of study. Also, the haplogroup letter designations may change periodically by Population Geneticists as their understanding of the data expands.

Population genetics is a field that is extremely theoretical and mathematical. Theoretical mathematicians are constrained (completely) by their axioms (assumptions), upon which they choose to build their work. The entire field of population genetics was developed by a small, tightly knit group of people who were utterly and radically committed to the Primary Axiom [Darwinism]. Today, it is still a very small field, still exclusively populated by "true believers" in the Primary Axiom. These people are extremely intelligent, but are totally and unconditionally bound to the Primary Axiom. For the most part, other biologists do not even understand their work - but accept their conclusions "by faith". Yet it is these same population geneticists themselves who have exposed some of the most profound limitations of natural selection. - John C. Sanford. Genetic Entropy & The Mystery of the Genome, pg.46

Use the following visual aids when needed: FamilyTreeDNA's Haplogroup Migration Map and Haplogroup Map of the World.

  • If the Hebrew Scriptures can be trusted, there should be evidence of a world-wide flood event (see Scientific Evidence for a Worldwide Flood). It has been postulated that mankind survived a bottleneck in the semi-recent past, and though the Scientific Establishment doesn't attribute this bottleneck to the Great Flood recorded in the Scriptures (Genesis 6), we should be able to trust the world-wide flood event as a historical reality, NOT as a partial fact and NOT as a myth (see Can the Bible be trusted as an instrument of History?).
  • If there was a world-wide flood as described by the scriptures, all of humanity presently on Earth are descended from Noah's three sons (Shem, Ham, and Japheth) and their three wives, thus, all males today can trace their Y-chromosomal DNA back to Noah, while the Mitochondrial DNA introduced by the four women of the group was not constricted at Noah in the same way as with the Y-chromosome of the men, hence women can claim some genetic origin that bypassed Noah, unlike men (this may partially explain why Mitochondrial Eve has been dated more than twice as old as Y Chromosomal Adam).
  • If the Biblical world-wide flood occurred, then the hypothesized Y-chromosomal Adam is actually the Y-Chromosomal Noah.

Finding Northern Kingdom Israelites by Identifying the Haplogroups of Modern Descendants of Parthian-Saka-Scythian-related Peoples

  • If the Creator of the Universe is NOT a liar, then His promise of a "multitude of nations" to Abraham (Genesis 17:5) and the "fullness of the nations" to Ephraim (Genesis 48:19) should be observable in the modern world and even discernible by their DNA.
  • If the 1st Century account of Josephus is accurate regarding the Ten Tribes of Israel having grown to an immense multitude east of the Euphrates River in the Caucasus and Central Asia regions (nearly 800 years after the Assyrian dispersion and captivity), then large portions of their population should have been represented by Parthian-Indo-Saka-Scythic peoples who just so happened to be the dominant population east of the Euphrates at that time (not including the subjugated Persian and Mede population).
  • If Josephus was not referring to the Saka-Parthian population as being Israelite in nature, we must then consider other possibilities... of which none have been proposed or suggested to this author in any compelling format. If he wasn't referring to Parthia, it would seem apparent that Josephus would speak more specific about the actual people representing the ten tribes of Israel, noting all of his readers' certain confusion with his statement's implication of Parthia. Even so, he doesn't clarify his statement. He speaks vaguely yet unmistakably and unafraid of the ramifications, which surely must have been many considering his Roman employment and the Roman animosity toward the only great "other" in the world at that time (that is, the formidable Parthian Empire).
  • If we can trace modern ethnic groups (using solid traditional and historical evidence) back to Parthian-Indo-Saka-Scythic peoples, we should then be able to test and compare the haplogroup frequencies within those specific ethnic groups in order to determine Israelite, or more specifically, Ephraimite Y-chromosomal haplogroups. Furthermore, we should then be able to transpose those findings onto closely related populations with the same or similar haplogroup frequencies who may not have solid historical connections (or may only have speculative connections) to Parthian-Indo-Saka-Scythic peoples, hence confirming their shared Israelite-ish origins.
  • FamilyTreeDNA Migration MapIf the Great Migration Period (starting roughly in the 3rd Century CE and continuing in earnest for several hundred years) carried the descendants of variously related Parthian and Scythian clans into what has become European and Russian nation-states, then Israelite descendants should be found partially or wholly representative in genetically discernible populations of all parts of Europe and Russia, as well as in many populations left behind in the Caucasus and Central Asian regions where Josephus indicated they first grew to be an innumerable multitude. The population frequencies of Y-Haplogroups R, Q, and N seem to confirm the above possibilities (click the migration map to the right to enlarge). It should also be noted that the Indian sub-continent has a large Y-Hap R population today and was once ruled by ancient Indo-European peoples, namely Scyths and Yuezhi/Kushans
  • If the Great Migration Period was ignited partially by rapidly expanding human populations in the Caucasus region and Central Asia, we may have reason to believe such expansion was due in whole or in part to the exponential population growth of the Israelite populations evidentially present in those locations for the previous 900 years (albeit, not known by the name "Israel"). The Prophet Hosea indicates Northern Kingdom Israelites would become as numerous as the "sand on the sea shore" after their captivity where they ceased to be "a people" (Hosea 1:9-11).
  • Migrations and Invasions of the Roman EmpireIf the Roman wars with Parthia and her Saka-Scythian allies helped bring the demise of the Parthian Empire leading up to the 3rd Century CE, then it may explain some of the hostilities toward Rome by peoples migrating from out of lands near and/or in former Parthian or Parthian-friendly territory within the same century of that specific demise (i.e. the Vandals, Visigoths, and Ostrogoths). Of course, climate pressures and population growth pressures (most notably the aggressive Hunic migration) were likely the greater culprits of the explosive and cascading human migratory period into Europe. Note: some Greek historians believed the Hun were also of Scythic-stock or Royal Scythians.
  • The Southern Israelite kingdom of Judah has continued as "Jewish" in all their dispersions. They are unmistakably remembered as Israelites. But if the words of the Prophet Hosea are accurate regarding the Northern Kingdom Israelite tribes becoming "not a people" (Hosea 1:9-11), then they should be expected to no longer be known by the name "Israel" in their separate dispersion.
  • If Israelites settled with Phoenicians (by way of the Mediterranean Sea) in Punic Iberia (Spain), Hibernia (Ireland), and Britannia (England) before and after the reigns of King David and Solomon (1037-931 BC), then we should expect the y-Chromosome founders of those populations to resemble suspected Israelite Scythian-related peoples migrating into Europe by way of the European mainland hundreds and many hundreds of years later (alluding most notably to y-Haplogroup R and subclades which make up the bulk of the European male population).

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Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Comparison Chart

Listed below are notable ethnic groups by Y-DNA haplogroups based on numerous relevant studies.

Notation: "Hg" is short for "Haplogroup" (What is a Haplogroup?). "CMH" is short for "Cohen Modal Haplotype". "SOE" is short for "Saka-Scythic Origin Evidence".

Joseph and his Companions??? (Ezekiel 37:16)            
Nation/People Hg.R Hg.I Hg.E Hg.J Hg.G Hg.N Hg.Q CMH SOE
Abkhazians 33%(R1a) 33% ~ 25% 0% ~ ~ ~ ~
Azerbaijanis 11%(R1b)/7%(R1a) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Georgians 14%(R1b)/8%(R1a) ~ 0% ~ 31% ~ ~ ~ strong
Ishkashimi 68%(R1a) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ strong
Tajiks 64%(R1a) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ strong
Kyrgyz 2%(R1b)/64%(R1a) 2% 0% 5% ~ 2% ~ ~ strong
Altaians (North) 6%(R1b)/38%(R1a) 0% 0% 2% 0% 10% ~ ~ strong
Altaians (South) 1%(R1b)/53%(R1a) 2% 1% 4% ~ 12% ~ ~ strong
Kazakhs 6%(R1b)/4%(R1a) 0% 0% 0% ~ 2% ~ ~ strong
Chuvashes 4%(R1b)/32%(R1a) 11% ~ ~ ~ 28% ~ ~ strong
Ossetians 43%(R1b)/2%(R1a) ~ ~ ~ <55% ~ ~ ~ ~
Tatars 9%(R1b)/34%(R1a) 4% ~ ~ ~ 23% ~ ~ ~
Turkmens 37%(R1b)/7%(R1a) 0% 0% 24% ~ 10% 12% ~ strong
Turks 16%(R1b)/7%(R1a) 5% 11% 34% 11% 4% ~ ~ ~
Uzbekistan ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 12% ~ strong
Kets ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 95% ~ strong
Selkups ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 70% ~ strong
Nation/People Hg.R Hg.I Hg.E Hg.J Hg.G Hg.N Hg.Q CMH SOE
Evenks ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 24% ~ ~ ~
Khakassians ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 34% ~ ~ ~
Buryats ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 18% ~ ~ ~
Koryaks ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 25% ~ ~ ~
Sakha (Yakuts) 2%(R1b)/2%(R1a) 1% ~ ~ ~ 88% ~ ~ strong
Tofalars ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 80% ~ ~ ~
Shors ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Mongolians 9%(R1a) 0% ~ 3% 1% 8% 4% ~ ~
Hazara ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ strong
Pashtun 4%(R1b)/45%(R1a) 0% 2% 6% 11% 0% ~ ~ strong
Kashmiri ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ strong
Brahman ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Nation/People Hg.R Hg.I Hg.E Hg.J Hg.G Hg.N Hg.Q CMH SOE
Macedon. Romani 2%(R1b)/2%(R1a) 3% 30% 2% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Macedonians 5%(R1b)/15%(R1a) 29% 24% 6% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Romanians 18%(R1b)/20%(R1a) 22% 21% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Poles 16%(R1b)/56%(R1a) 18% 4% 1% ~ ~ ~ ~ strong
Germans 48%(R1b)/8%(R1a) 0% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Sorbs 64%(R1a) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ strong
Serbs 11%(R1b)/16%(R1a) 29% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Hungarians 13%(R1b)/20%(R1a) 23% 9% 2% ~ ~ ~ ~ strong
Norwegians 26%(R1b)/18%(R1a) 40% 2% ~ ~ 4% 4% ~ strong
Saami 4%(R1b)/11%(R1a) 31% ~ ~ ~ 47% ~ ~ strong
Saami (Sweden) 8%(R1b)/16%(R1a) 32% 0% 0% 0% ~ ~ ~ strong
Swedes (North) 23%(R1b)/19%(R1a) 26% ~ ~ ~ 8% ~ ~ strong
Swedes 14%(R1b)/24%(R1a) 39% ~ ~ ~ 14% ~ ~ strong
Finns 2%(R1b)/9%(R1a) 29% 2% ~ ~ 62% ~ ~ strong
Komi 16%(R1b)/33%(R1a) 5% ~ ~ ~ 35% ~ ~ strong
Mari 3%(R1b)/48%(R1a) 8% ~ ~ ~ 41% ~ ~ strong
Russians (North) 6%(R1b)/33%(R1a) 15% 1% 2% 1% 41% ~ ~ strong
Russians (Central) 7%(R1b)/47%(R1a) 17% 5% 3% 0% 17% ~ ~ strong
Ukrainians 2%(R1b)/54%(R1a) 22% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ strong
Dutch 70%(R1b)/4%(R1a) 27% ~ 0% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Netherlands 70%(R1) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Nation/People Hg.R Hg.I Hg.E Hg.J Hg.G Hg.N Hg.Q CMH SOE
Icelanders 41%(R1b)/24%(R1a) 34% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Orcadians 66%(R1b)/20%(R1a) ~ 0% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
English 90%(R1b) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ mild
English (SE) 70%(R1b) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ mild
Irish 81%(R1b)/.5%(R1a) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Irish (NW) 98%(R1b) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Welsh 89%(R1b)/1%(R1a) 8% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ mild
Scots 77%(R1b)/7%(R1a) 11% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ mild
Swiss ~ 8% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Italians  62%(R1b)/3%(R1a) 8% ~ ~ 10% ~ ~ ~ ~
Italians (Apulia)  ~ 3% 12% 3% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Italians (Calabria)  32%(R1b) 5% 16% 2% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Italians (N.Central)  62%(R1b) .5% 10% 10% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Italians (Sardinia)  22%(R1b) 42% 5% 12% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Italians (Sicily)  ~ 9% 14% 0% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Italians (South)  ~ ~ 11% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Basque 88%(R1b)/0%(R1a) 8% 2% 3% 0% 0% ~ ~ ~
French 52%(R1b)/0%(R1a) 17% 5% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Spanish 68%(R1b)/2%(R1a) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Andalusians 65%(R1b)/0%(R1a) 4% 3% 1% ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Portuguese (N) 62%(R1b)/0%(R1a) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Portuguese (S) 56%(R1b)/2%(R1a) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
                   
Judah and his Companions??? (Ezekiel 37:16)              
Nation/People Hg.R Hg.I Hg.E Hg.J Hg.G Hg.N Hg.Q CMH SOE
Askenazi Cohanim ~ ~ ~ 87% ~ ~ ~ 45% n/a
Separdic Cohanim ~ ~ ~ 75% ~ ~ ~ 56% n/a
Askenazi Jews 10%(R1b)/12%(R1a) 4% 21% 37% ~ ~ 5% 13% n/a
Sephardic Jews 30%(R1b)/4%(R1a) 12% 19% 28% 10% ~ ~ 10% n/a
Lemba ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ <10% n/a
Kurdish Jews 20%(R1b)/4%(R1a) ~ 12% 37% ~ ~ ~ ~ n/a
Kurdish Muslims 17%(R1b)/12%(R1a) ~ 7% 40% ~ ~ ~ ~ n/a
Yemeni Jews ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ n/a
Yemeni Muslims 0%(R1b)/0%(R1a) 0% 16% 82% 2% 0% ~ ~ n/a
Palestinians 8%(R1b)/1%(R1a) 6% 20% 55% ~ ~ ~ ~ n/a
Bedouin 0%(R1b)/9%(R1a) 6% 19% 66% ~ ~ ~ ~ n/a
Copts (A. Egyptian) 15%(R1b) ~ 21% 46% ~ ~ ~ ~ n/a

Sources:

Random Questions and Difficulties

  • The Ishmael / Esau (Arab) Question: Both had the Y-DNA of Abraham (as did Jacob). What are the Y-DNA frequencies of those who consider themselves to be "Arab"? Could the ancient and continued presence of the once captive Kingdom of Judah within Babylonia skew the understanding of the current haplogroup frequency in the Middle East? In other words, could there be Y-DNA descendants of the ancient Jewish Kingdom (Judah, Benjamin, and Levi) in modern day Iraq who consider themselves Arab?
  • Some think the Turks are descended from Esau. Kurds have legends of being Israelite from the Assyrian captivity. But what is the Y-DNA frequency of Kurdish and Turkish populations?

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